Home > News > Content

Solar Panel Working Principle

Melin Sunergy Co.,Ltd | Updated: Aug 30, 2017

Single solar cells can not be used directly to power. Power supply must be a number of single battery strings, connected in parallel and tightly packaged into components. Solar panels (also known as solar modules) are the core of solar power systems and the most important part of solar power systems.

The sun is irradiated on the semiconductor p-n junction to form a new hole-electron pair. Under the action of the p-n junction electric field, the holes flow from the p region to the n region. The electrons flow from the n region to the p region, and the current is formed after the circuit is turned on. This is the photoelectric effect of the working principle of solar cells.

Solar power generation There are two ways of solar power generation, one is the light - heat - electricity conversion, the other is the optical - electrical direct conversion.

(1) light - heat - electric conversion method through the use of solar radiation generated by thermal energy, usually by the solar collector will absorb the heat into the refrigerant refrigerant, and then drive the turbine power generation. The previous process is the light-heat conversion process; the latter process is the thermo-electrical conversion process.

(2) optical - electrical direct conversion method is the use of photoelectric effect, the solar radiation can be directly converted into electrical energy, optical - electrical conversion of the basic device is the solar cell. The solar cell is a device that converts solar energy directly into electrical energy due to the photovoltaic effect. It is a semiconductor photodiode. When the sun shines on the photodiode, the photodiode turns the solar energy into electricity. Current. When many batteries in series or in parallel can become a relatively large output power of the solar cell array.

Solar panels and various parts of the function:

(1) tempered glass: its role in order to protect the main power generation (such as battery), translucent its selection is required:

1. Transmittance must be high (generally more than 91%);

2. Ultra-white steel processing.

(2) EVA: used to bond fixed glass and power generation (battery), transparent EVA material directly affect the quality of the component life, exposure to the air in the EVA easy to aging yellow, thus affecting the components of light In addition to the quality of EVA itself, the components manufacturers of laminated technology is also very large, such as EVA glue degree is not up to standard, EVA and tempered glass, backplane bonding strength is not enough, will cause EVA Early aging, affecting component life.

(3) battery: the main role is the power generation, power generation main market is the mainstream of crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells, both of their advantages and disadvantages. Crystalline silicon solar cells, the cost of equipment is relatively low, but the cost of consumption and battery sheet is high, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency is also high, in the outdoor sun power generation more appropriate. Thin film solar cells, the relative cost of equipment is higher, but the consumption and battery cost is very low, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency is more than half of the crystalline silicon cell, but the low light effect is very good, in ordinary light can also generate electricity, such as the calculator Of the solar cells.

(4) back: the role of sealing, insulation, waterproof. Generally use TPT, TPE and other materials must be anti-aging, most components manufacturers are guaranteed for 25 years, tempered glass, aluminum alloy generally no problem, the key in the backplane and silicone can meet the requirements.

(5) aluminum alloy: protective laminates, from a certain seal, support role.

(6) junction box: the protection of the entire power generation system, play the role of the current transfer station, if the components of the short-circuit junction box automatically disconnect the short-circuit battery string, to prevent burning the entire system Junction box is the most critical diode selection, The type of battery chip is different, the corresponding diode is not the same.

(7) Silica gel: Seal effect, used to seal components and aluminum alloy frame, components and junction box at the junction of some companies use double-sided tape, foam instead of silica gel, the domestic use of silica gel, the process is simple, convenient, easy to operate, And the cost is very low.